Napoleon had always been hostile to this pseudo-science. Thirteen years after his death, his head served as a subject of study at the Phrenological Society of Paris. Several questions were raised:
Considering the abnormal circumstances in which Antommarchi’s casting had been made, can it be regarded as a true representation of the Emperor’s face?
. Is it possible to study seriously the shape of Napoleon’s skull as it is incomplete, since the casting is a mask lying on a cushion?
. Can a phrenological analysis be carried out, knowing that the most striking traits of the Emperor’s personality, his firmness, self-esteem and fighting spirit, would be located in the missing posterior area?
The arguments developed by the editors of "la Gazette médicale" in 1834 fed the debate with the Phrenological Society.
Finally, the measurement of the cross diameter of the mask by Antommarchi having revealed a small-sized skull, this, the most striking argument against Gall’s doctrine would only serve to re-open the phrenology debate: How could so great a genius have such a small head?